viernes, 18 de agosto de 2006

Miami en el tiempo



Roberto Savino

Miami sí tiene historia. Empieza en su etapa moderna (como la de tantas otras geografías americanas) con la llegada del tren. Julia Tuttle, residente del sur de la Florida, convenció a Henry Flagler – no se sabe con qué argumentos – a que extendiera la ruta del ferrocarril que construía más al norte del estado. Así fue que Miami se abrió al mundo, adquiriendo forma y fama los pequeños pueblos que la circundaban: Springs, Cutler y Coral Gables. La esperanza del comercio y la expectativa del transporte dieron paso al auge de inversiones en bienes raíces con proyectos arquitectónicos tan disímiles como los Art Deco en Miami Beach de los 20's, o los de inspiración Mediterránea de la década anterior en Coral Gables. Años de lujos, excesos, cultura y extravagancia. Dos de sus protagonistas fueron los hermanos Deering, James y Charles. Con su fortuna, amasada en la exitosa fabricación de maquinaria para la agricultura, crearon dos de los legados arquitectónicos más emblemáticos y contrastantes de la zona: Vizcaya (1916 – 1925), de inspiración veneciana, financiada a su exigente antojo por el bachelor James. También Deering State at Cutler (1916 – 1922), donde se tocan en un vértice dos edificios completamente distintos: la casa de piedra gruesa, siguiendo el rudimentario modelo de villa toscana donde Charles, varios años menor que su medio hermano James, guardaba su prestigiosísima colección de arte, y una casa de madera modesta (por la que llegó a gozar de cierto renombre; ya en pie cuando Charles adquirió la propiedad), el hotel Richmond Cottage - entre Miami y los Cayos. El contraste entre los gustos de los hermanos Deering hacen que Vizcaya (más relacionada a los carnavales temáticos del renacimiento que se celebran allí cada año) contraste con la paz, el paisaje amable y legado arqueológico que guarda Deering State. Ambas mansiones reflejan no sólo las personalidades de dos hermanos cultos y adinerados, también revelan matices distintos de una época desbordante de Miami, cuando los delfines y los manatíes eran cosa de todos los días y los huracanes castigo divino.

14 comentarios:

mm dijo...

Una rama de azahares y el lenguaje empresarial fue lo que usó Julia Tuttle para convencer al propietario de la Florida East Coast Railroad, Henry Flagler, de que extendiera el ferrocarril al sur de West Palm Beach. En 1891, Tuttle que había quedado viuda y llevaba la fundición que había heredado de su marido en Ohio, recibió como herencia paterna 40 acres en lo que hoy conocemos como Miami. Ella vendió la fundición, se mudó a Miami y compró cientos de acres. De inmediato se dio a la tarea de convencer a Flagler, sabía que sin transporte no habría ciudad. Durante un par de años Flagler no le prestó atención; hasta 1895 cuando el mercurio descendió y las cosechas se dañaron, pero los naranjales de Tuttle no sufrieron nada. Ella aprovechó, esta vez le envió el mensaje junto a una rama florecida y cajones de frutas. El perfume del negocio lo convenció. Al poco tiempo el magnate visitó la zona, y en julio del año siguiente la ciudad de Miami se fundó con 444 residentes. Tuttle murió dos años más tarde.
No fue hasta los años 20 que se incorporaron otras ciudades: Coral Gables y Miami Beach en 1921, Hialeah en 1925, Miami Springs en 1926. Perrine y Cutler Ridge son municipalidades no incorporadas, o sea que están sujetas al gobierno del condado.
Entre los protagonistas del desarrollo urbanístico destaca George Merrick; Coral Gables, una de las primeras comunidades planificadas de los Estados Unidos, le debe sus coordenadas.
En cuanto a huracanes: 1919 - grandes daños en Cayo Hueso; 1926 impactó Miami, Hallandale, Dania, Hollywood y Ft. Lauderdale; el de septiembre de 1928 entró por Palm Beach y desbordó el lago Okeechobee; uno de categoría 5 azotó Cayo Hueso en 1935 y dejó una estela de muertos. Hubo cierta quietud hasta 1960 con Donna, ‘64 con Cleo y ‘65 con Betsy. Descansamos hasta el 92 con Andrew. La diferencia radica en la población y cómo se construía; ah, pero entonces como ahora, los azahares florecen...

La Cafeina dijo...

Roberto: Ese blog tuyo pone a Miami en su lugar. Me asombra la historia nuestra, tan corta. A veces le pedimos mucho a la ciudad que si apenas pudo ser construida por nuestros tatarabuelos. Gracias por ese post.

tumiami dijo...

Tu post de hoy nos viene como anillo al dedo.Gracias, Savino.

La Mano Poderosa dijo...

WINDS OF CHANGE
by Marc Andries Smit

A warm breeze sweeps the Tequesta village at the mouth of the Miami River. Life among the natives is unchanged. At the time Columbus sailed into the New World the residents of South Florida were made up of a domain of independent yet linguistically, racially, and politically connected tribes known as the Caloosas. The two principal groups in the South East Coast were the “Ays” (located near the Indian River Inlet ) and the “Tequesta” ( which inhabited the Biscayne Bay and Miami River sites).

In the year 1493 Christopher Columbus launched his second expedition accompanied by a young explorer, Juan Ponce de Leon. By 1508 Ponce de Leon had already settled the island of Puerto Rico and been appointed its governor. Yet soon enough he was replaced by Christopher Columbus’ son Don Diego. Undaunted, Ponce de Leon mounted an expedition to find the fabled Island of Bimini, which according to the Indians,” a magical spring offering the gift of youth could be found on the Island”. On March 15,1513 the winds of change filled the sails, and Ponce de Leon’s expedition was underway. The ocean currents and tropic breezes send him on a North West heading and the explorer spotted land several weeks later. “Tierra Florida”, named after the Easter season “Feast of Flowers” (Pascua Florida). Historians are unsure where he first set foot in Florida, but most believe it to have been somewhere between St. Augustine and Melbourne. Sailing towards the south to the Florida Straits he recorded sailing into “Chequescha Bay” (Biscayne Bay), but no evidence has been found of his setting foot on land.

Miami’s first recorded location appears on a map drawn around 1515 by Conti de Ottoman Freducci. The “Freducci Map” was based, in part, on Ponce de Leon’s journals, and it shows such sites as “Rio Salado” (New River in Fort Lauderdale), “Chequiche” (Biscayne Bay), “Tequesta” (Miami) and “Los Martires” (Florida Keys). Incidentally, the name “Los Martires” originated from the early sailors reporting that the rock formations that protruded from the sea appeared from a distance to be men in distress.

Other expeditions were mounted, Ayllon in 1526, Narvaez in 1528, and Hernan de Soto in 1539. Yet, there is no evidence that they came ashore on this area. In 1562 the French established a colony near Jacksonville; this did not sit well with the Spanish Monarch Phillip II. The Spanish King appointed Pedro Menendez de Aviles to cleanse Florida of the “French Heretics”, giving Menendez de Aviles the title of “Adelantado” or governor of Florida. Menendez defeated the French in 1565, and became the founder of the city of St. Augustine. Sadly though, one of the reasons that Menendez de Aviles was anxious to come to Florida was to search for his son, whom had been reported shipwrecked and presumed lost in Florida. He searched diligently for his son but instead rescued another sailor by the name of Hernan d’ Escalante Fontaneda.

Fontaneda had been shipwrecked as a boy at the age of thirteen and taken captive by the Indians. He lived with them for close to twenty years. Upon his return to Spain, in 1575, he published his memoirs. In his journal he recorded the flora, fauna and the Indian customs; he also gave detailed accounts of his travels with the Indians. An excerpt from his journal states... Toward the north, The Martyrs end near a place the Indians call Tequesta (Miami), situated on the bank of a river which extends into a country the distance of 15 leagues, and issues from another lake of fresh water, which is said by some Indians who have traversed it more than I, to be an arm of the lake “Mayaimi” (Lake Okeechobee) ... Could the name “Miami” be a contraction of the Miami River’s origin, ”Mayaimi”?

Menendez was not finished with South Florida yet. In 1567 he began to establish Jesuit missions and opened one at the Biscayne Bay (Tequesta) village. With a team of 30 men and a Jesuit Brother Villareal, the mission was underway. The conditions were harsh, as evidenced in a letter written at the Tequesta (Miami) mission by Brother Villareal, he wrote.... “I and all of us endure this land trials which would appear insufferable in another place. I say this for we have had for the past three months or more a plague of mosquitoes so bad, that I spent several days and nights without being able to sleep an hour “...Tensions between the Indians and the Spanish intensified and soon the mission was abandoned.

Tequesta (Miami) was ignored by the Spanish as they favored other more lucrative settlements. The combination of swamp and mosquitoes didn’t offer much to justify attention. By the early 18th century British colonies in Georgia and Carolina began to force the Creek Indians into Florida. The British referred to these runaway Creek Indians as “Seminole” and had no objections to their coming into Spanish Florida. With the Seminole advance, the native Indians found themselves in danger as they were attacked and enslaved by the Creek Indians. In 1711 the local tribes sent their chiefs to Cuba to request asylum. The Spanish dispatched several ships to Florida but found close to 2,000 Indians awaiting to emigrate to Cuba. The ships could barely accommodate 300, and once in Havana, the local Cubans took the new arrivals into their homes. Immediately the Indians fell ill to European diseases for which they had no immunities. Seventy Indians died, In a panic, the remaining survivors returned to Florida. The Spanish decided to establish a new mission at Tequesta. In 1743, Father Jose Maria Monaco and Father Jose Xavier de Alaña came and opened the new mission “Pueblo de Santa Maria de Loreto”. But just as the previous mission, it was abandoned after a short time.

The Seven Years War (French and Indian War) brought changes to Florida. The British captured Havana, and in 1763 Spain agreed to exchange it for Florida. The remaining Tequesta families, approximately 80, chose to emigrate to Cuba in 1764 establishing the city of Nueva Florida (Ceiba Mocha) in Cuba, leaving Florida to the British and the Seminole.

Almost immediately the British set forth to take over the area. The first thing they did was to change the Spanish names into English, such as; Biscayne Bay became Sandwich Gulf (after the Earl of Sandwich) and the Rio Ratones (Miami River) became the Garbrand River. Advertisements appeared in London papers offering free land in the new “Cape Florida Settlement”. But few if any took interest, and with the independent movement in the “Colonies” the English had bigger problems to deal with. Spain seized control of the English prize, Nassau, and soon thereafter the British negotiated its return in exchange for Florida. Spanish Florida was of little interest to Spain since its other colonies could supply it with more riches, so by 1821 Florida was peacefully turned over to the United States.

Key West, not Miami, became the first South Florida community in 1823, and with pirates and shipwrecks along the Florida Straits, the Government built a US Customs house and Lighthouse at the Keys. Due to continued complaints and shipwrecks the Government decided to build a 65 foot tall lighthouse at Cape Florida which became operational in December of 1825. Unfortunately, the lighthouse was somewhat ineffective and the lighthouse keeper had a wrecking business of his own.

On December of 1835, Major Francis Dade and 109 of his men were in route from Tampa to Ocala when they were suddenly ambushed by the Seminole. By days end Major Dade and 109 soldiers lay dead, and “The Seminole Wars” began. The shock hit home on January 6,1836 when a family was massacred at the New River Plantation, a young slave survived the attack and warned the Cape Florida settlers. In a panic, everyone took refuge at the Cape Florida Lighthouse, and were taken to Key West by ship. The newly assigned lighthouse keeper John Thompson and his black aid Aaron Carter stayed behind. On July 23, 1836 the Seminole attacked, Thompson and Carter barely made it into the lighthouse. The Indians set fire to the cabin and lighthouse. As smoke and flames engulfed the lighthouse, Thompson threw a keg of gunpowder down the stairs to end the torment. The explosion convinced the Indians that both men were dead, but miraculously Thompson survived. Although stranded at the top of the lighthouse, he was soon rescued by a passing ship and taken to Key West.

To ward off Seminole attacks the Federal Government selected a site by the Miami river to build Fort Dallas. Soon enough, the soldiers returned to Cape Florida and a small site was set up named Fort Bankhead. Eventually, the attacks subsided and settlers began to return to their homes to rebuild there lives. The Dade County Seat was moved to Miami on March of 1844, and by 1846 the Cape Florida Lighthouse was heightened and equipped with a new and more efficient light. But peace was short-lived when in 1849 a US Inspector was killed in an attack, Miami was deserted again and the army returned. This time they rebuilt and expanded Fort Dallas and under the leadership of US Capt. Abner Doubleday (the Father of Baseball), the Fort Lauderdale to Miami highway was opened. By 1857 the conflicts had ended and life slowly returned to normal. The 1860 census reported a population of close to 60 at the Fort Dallas district.

The Civil War erupted and Florida for the most part was Confederate. Yet Miami was split, since Key West remained under Union control, most settlers found it convenient not to “rock the boat”. In 1861, Rebel guerrillas did manage to attack the Cape Florida Lighthouse and sabotage the light, but no other major incidents took place. For the most part Miamians went on with their business.

The 1870’s was a period of growth as “Carpet Baggers” and “Northerners “ started moving into Miami. Among those was Ephraigm T. Sturtevant whose daughter (Julia Tuttle) would on occasion come South to visit. Julia Tuttle first visited her father around 1875, and loved Miami. The Tuttles lived in Cleveland, Ohio during the industrial boom and there she met one the owners of Standard Oil, Mr. Henry M. Flagler. Flagler’s wife was dying of tuberculosis and the doctors advised warmer weather, so he moved to Florida. His wife soon died and he married his wife’s nurse, honeymooning in St. Augustine. Falling in love with the city, of St. Augustine, he built a hotel and brought the railroad from Tampa in order to travel in his own rail car.

Around the same time, in 1891, Julia Tuttle’s husband and father passed away, so she moved to her fathers estate in Miami. Upon hearing of Flagler’s newest venture (building a new Hotel in Palm Beach and connecting the city by rail), she pleaded with him to consider doing the same for Miami. Flagler just gave Julia the “cold shoulder” until the citrus freeze 1895. The citrus industry suffered major loses in the winter of 1894-95, and Julia seized the opportunity to promote sunny South Florida, this time Flagler listened and “warmed up” to the idea.

On the 3rd of March in 1896 construction of the Royal Palm Hotel began, and by April 15, 1896 the train arrived to Miami. Within a month, Miami’s first paper ”The Miami Metropolis” was printed, financed by Flagler. Finally, on July 28, 1896 voters met to incorporate the City of Miami, and with 343 votes, Miami became a city. Soon the new city was on its way. The Royal Palm Hotel opened on January 17,1897 and its first convention was the “International Tobacco Growers Convention”, thus starting Miami’s tourist town image.

“REMEMBER THE MAINE”!!!!! on February 7, 1898 the U.S.S. Maine exploded in Havana Harbor and the sounds of war echoed through the streets of Miami. The local residents panicked, fearing Spanish invasion they summoned Washington DC for protection. Henry M. Flagler seized the opportunity and promoted Miami as “The most pleasant place south of Bar Harbor to spend summer” hoping that this would “put Miami on the map”. On June 24th 1898, 7,000 troops arrived in Miami. The “pleasant summer” was anything but that, 7,000 hot, bored, mosquito-bitten soldiers were too much for the new town to handle and as one soldier put it “If I owned both Miami and Hell, I’d rent out Miami and live in Hell”... Two months later, the war had ended. The troops returned home and life slowly got back to normal.

Soon developers started turning dreams into reality. Carl Fisher and John Collins joined forces to build a Causeway to Miami Beach and by 1915 the city of Miami Beach was incorporated. In 1918, ”The Alamo” became the new hospital (presently located at the Jackson Memorial Center ). Others continued building and selling, George Merrick developed Coral Gables as famed auctioneer “Doc” Dammers sold the lots. Miami roared in the early 20’s as speculators rolled in to purchase paradise.

“Paradise Lost” - September 17, 1926 most locals went along with their business, even though hurricane warnings had been posted, few cared. By late evening the winds increased, and for eight hours pounded the residents, suddenly the skies cleared and wind stopped. Miamians came out, unaware that they were in the “eye of the storm”. Tragically, hundreds were taken by surprise, winds of over 128 MPH hammered mercilessly as the horror continued. By storm’s end, over a hundred lay dead or missing, and national publicity discouraged many from settling here.

Once again the city picked up the pieces. The University of Miami opened its doors on October 15,1926. The city grew and by October 28 1927 Pan-Am flew its first flight from Key West to Havana. Soon thereafter, the airline relocated to Miami and opened a landing field on NW 36th street and Le Jeune Road, with passenger flights to the Caribbean and Latin America. Another airline soon was in place, Pitcairn Airlines opened in 1928 and hired WWI flying ace, Eddie Rickenbacker to run the line, it soon was renamed Eastern Airlines. Eastern scheduled passenger flights to northern cities. The Tampa to Miami Highway (Tamiami Trail) opened in 1928, and Miami’s doors were officially flung open for business.

World War II brought its problems, U-boats took control of the Florida Straits, sinking tankers and supply ships. Miami became a military town and base. The Navy opened submarine detection schools and utilized blimps for recognizance. Hotels were turned into military hospitals, including the Biltmore Hotel in Coral Gables, which remained a Veterans Hospital after the war until the new facility was built. Soon tourism returned and so did the seasonal lifestyle.

As Miami celebrated New Year in 1959, a few miles away in Cuba political turmoil would transform Miami forever. As Castro’s regime terrorized the Island, Miami became a beacon for Cuba’s oppressed. Doctors, lawyers, middle class professionals escaped the Island, most stripped of all possessions and allowed only $5.00 per family. Many took whatever jobs were available in a tourist economy. It was common to find out that a restaurant waiter was a doctor. Sadly, Cuban’s hope for a quick return to their Island was crushed on April 17,1961. The Bay of Pigs invasion volunteers were mostly comprised of young professionals which had escaped the Island. The US recruited, trained, and financed the freedom fighters, named Brigade 2506. On the morning of April 17th, the attack went on as planned, the beachhead was established and the troops awaited the promised US air support. It never arrived. The supply ships were sunk, and ammunition ran out, left stranded with 37 drowned and an additional 62 killed. The remaining 1,180 were captured. Later, in 1962, the Kennedy administration negotiated their exchange for 62 million dollars worth of food and supplies. In 1962 the Cuban Missile Crisis furthered the possibility of any quick resolution for the Cuban people. The “Freedom Flights “ were established in 1965, and by the 1970 ‘s over 400,000 Cubans resided in Dade County.

The Gateways to the Americas were now wide open. Other oppressed groups found a haven in Miami. With the economic growth in trade and commerce Miami fluorished into what it is today. The Greater Miami Convention and Visitors center reports that in 1995 Dade County had over 9.4 million visitors creating a tourist impact of over 3 billion dollars. The city of Miami’s International Trade Board reported Miami’s exports totaled over 19 billion, many going to Latin America.

There is no doubt that Miami’s history has been as unique as its people, few places in the world have had such a culturally enriching background. Miami’s melting pot simmers in the warmth of the sun, and our exotic aroma has been swept to far off lands by our tropical breeze. From a Tequesta Indian village by our sandy shores, to “sandcastles” kissing the sky, Miami has been transformed into a cosmopolitan city, host to international business, banking centers, performing arts, and unique cuisine. A multi-cultural community basking in the sun, dancing to the rhythm of our own special beat. Miami is the place where cultures love to meet.

jr dijo...

ña, ña, ña. Estoy saboreando esto. Un simposio de historia sobre Miami en nuestro blog. Información y cultura para mi tripa cerebral. Gracias, Savino. Gracias, mm. Thanks, Marc. Y, por supuesto, gracias a tumiami, el espacio multicultural de nuestra ciudad y extramuros

13robby dijo...

Gracias, mm y Mano P., por contribuir y seguir desarrollando esta apasionante historia del primer "boom" comercial e inmobiliario de Miami. En mi opinion, todo esto tiene un fuerte potencial novelistico, en el que posiblemente me embarque. Es interesante que justo ahora se estan viviendo en Miami dias parecidos, y muchos ya afirman que la burbuja esta reventando. En sus dias, Fisher, uno de los precursores de Miami Beach, termino en la quiebra y alcoholico. Vamos a ver que empresario repite la historia...

Es cierto, Cafeina. Miami ha avanzado a zancadas! Gracias a Tu Miami por acercarnos a esta ciudad adolescente!

Saludos,

Roberto.

El Buti dijo...

Si no leo esto aqui no me entero. Siempre creemos que venimos de un lugar mejor y le damos de lado a la ciudad y su historia... estamos compartiendo algo de lo que a veces al menos yo, me he avergonzado. Aclaro que ya no.

LuiSoler dijo...

Estoy seguro que, nuestro simpatiquísimo y agilmental provocador Néstor Díaz de Villegas, al leer este post, se cagaría de la risa. En tono de burla y acompañado la contrapropuesta, diría: ¡Pero que de cuál historia me están hablando, pero si este pueblo no tiene ni presente! Cumanayagua tiene más historia que Miami. Por válida adulación amiguera y catarsis personales con esta ciudad, muchos lo acompañarían en esa risa nerviosa y cómplice. Claro, estarían cuando menos, cayendo en un error de cálculo y de objetividad. Ni minimizar con comparaciones poco serias, ni exagerar con la pasión de agradecidos desarraigados, le agrega o le quita un ápice a esta ciudad. Sabino, con microhistorias locales, despierta un tema que lo hemos conversado entre amigos por mucho tiempo en muchas oportunidades y lo hace sin diletar en las valoraciones en las que muchos caemos. Hace poco, de paseo por el viejo mundo, me di cuenta de que vivimos en una ciudad extremadamente joven y con características muy particulares donde lo más importante que se conoce de ella es el tremendo contrapeso que han causado otras historias transgresoras (la de los cubanos sobre todo), los sobredimensionados huracanes, el glamour hollywoodesco de Miami Beach, políticos corruptos y los exóticos Everglades. Casi todo…casi nada. Como solemos pensar y analizar en términos perecederos, esta perspectiva, esta visión foránea de nuestra ciudad termina por contagiarnos a nosotros mismos que somos sus exportadores.

En el cielo de la centenaria Coral Glabes, se forma un negro nubarrón que derramará su contenido, por igual, en los predios de mi casa como en los jardines de Vizcaya.

tumiami dijo...

Luis Soler, sigo tu observacion: La cuestion es si estamos preparados para ser pioneros (si se entiende alguien que llega y comienza algo). Toda la descarga de Nestor -y gente como el- tiene que ver con buscar historia en las comparaciones y luego quejarse, esa aburrida comparacion de Habana/Miami, Miami/NY, Barcelona, Paris o China no tiene sentido. Lo obvio no se discute, pero las comparaciones se permiten porque la critica es valida, y de ella se aprende (cabe decir que "historia" es un concepto muy elastico). En el desprecio por Miami hay mucha mala fe. Mucha de esa gente tiene una pequen~ita historia en el pueblo... y en ultima instancia (por esas ironias de la vida), pueden terminar carenando aqui de nuevo...

La Mano Poderosa dijo...

De acuerdo tumiami, esta es una ciudad joven en tiempos diferentes en la historia mundial. Mientras que Venecia se hunde, Miami sigue creciendo, y dentro de ese fenemeno tambien esta heredando muchas de las inestabilidades y costumbres de nuestros paises hispanos, las buenas con las malas. El imbalance social y economico tambien nos lleva hacia un futuro intranquilo, algo que rompe con los ideales utopicos de Merrick, que fue testigo de la guerra que supuestamente seria la ultima guerra mundial, creando los "Roaring Twenties". A veces los sueños se convierten en pesadillas. Espero que no sea nuestro caso en esta gran ciudad...

jr dijo...

Da la impresión de que la historia de Miami viaja en ese mismo tren donde comenzara su narrativa mundana. La marcha como que se va acelerando de la mano de la modernidad y la tecnología. Por su posición geográfica envidiable, su clima, su confluencia de culturas y la propicia virginidad para el ensayo, esta ciudad tiende a ser un campo de experimentación inversionista. Ese carácter crucero del emplazamiento es una preocupación para otras urbes que dan señales de decadencia. Lo único que lamento es la discapacidad de su contendiente -y a la vez suplemento- natural del Caribe. El día que La Habana deje de ser esa famélica ciudadela en que la ha convertido el empecinado jamelgo, los lazos consanguíneos, el balcón con balcón de sus intereses, le harán compartir el espíritu de metrópolis y el apogeo en la fortuna. Mientras tanto, para ello habrá que seguirse preparando.

tumiami dijo...

No olvido me la arquitecto Zaha Hadid (que gano el premio Pritzker del 2004) me dijo que le encantaba Miami porque aunque joven, ya era una metropolis cosmopolita con un enorma potencial. No dudo que este haciendo algo en Miami muy pronto. Nouvell, Mier y Gehry ya estan construyendo en Miami.

La Mano Poderosa dijo...

Nota historica, si no histerica.
El gran Henry M. Flagler, en sus ultimos años, estaba soñando y planiando seguir su ferrocarril hacia la misma Isla de Cuba desde Cayo Hueso. Pero con las limitaciones de su edad, y la caida economica, fallecio con su sueño sin terminar el plan. Como hubiera sido la historia de esa Isla si hubeira visto un real puente, y no como el de Mariel?...

mm dijo...

AT, a mi Terry Riley -cuando todavia presidia el departamento de arquitectura del MoMA- me dijo algo parecido a lo que te dijo Hadid. Y miralo, ahora encabeza el MAM mientras tanto sigue construyendo en el Design District... Ya sabes que soy bastante critica de Miami, pero lo hago desde Miami; mientras tomo cafe en Versailles o compro fiambres en Laurenzo's.